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Law Review Articles

“‘Arms in the Hands of Jews Are a Danger to Public Safety’: Nazism, Firearm Registration, and the Night of the Broken Glass,” 21 St. Thomas Law Review 109-41 (2009). Reprinted in 21 Journal on Firearms & Public Policy 22 (Fall 2009).

“Bill of Rights Redivivus: Amendment II,” 17 The Champion (Natl. Assn. Criminal Def. Lawyers) 14-20 (Jan./Feb. 1993).

“Citizens in Arms: The Swiss Experience,” Texas Review of Law & Politics, vol. 8, Issue 1 (Fall 2003), 142-74. Oral presentation in A Question of Balance, International Symposium on Legal, Economic, and Human Rights Implications of Civilian Firearms Ownership and Regulation, Tower of London, May 1-2, 2003 (DVD available from

“Congress Interprets the Second Amendment: Declarations by a Co-Equal Branch on the Individual Right to Keep and Bear Arms,” 62 Tennessee Law Review 597-641 (Spring 1995).

“The Constitutional Right to Hunt: New Recognition of an Old Liberty in Virginia,” 19 William & Mary Bill of Rights Journal, Issue 1, 197-233 (2010).

“The Court Did Not Err,” in Issues on Trial: Gun Control (Greenhaven Press 2007), 203.

“‘A Crime to Possess a Firearm’: Does the Second Amendment Apply in New York?” 14 Government, Law & Policy Journal 51-56 (Summer 2012).

“Defense of Self and Community: A Response to Professor Johnson,” 45 Connecticut Law Review 1653 (July 2013).

“The Empire Strikes Back: The District of Columbia’s Post-Heller Firearm Registration System,” 81 Tennessee Law Review 571 (2014).

“Encroachments of the Crown on the Liberty of the Subject: Pre-Revolutionary Origins of the Second Amendment,” 15 University of Dayton Law Review, 91-124 (Fall 1989).

“European History of 1799 as Seen From the USA,” Suworow in der Schweiz: Colloque Souvorov du bicentenaire 1799 - 1999 (Zurich: Thesis, 2001), 162-79.

“Firearm Sound Moderators: Issues of Criminalization & the 2nd Amendment,” 46:1 Cumberland Law Review 33 (2016).

“Firearms, the Fourth Amendment, and Air Carrier Security,” 53 Journal of Air Law and Commerce 585-680 (1987), reprinted in Serial No. 91, House Judiciary Committee, 100th Cong., 1st Sess., 174-270 (1987).

“The Freedmen’s Bureau Act and the Conundrum Over Whether the Fourteenth Amendment Incorporates the Second Amendment,” 29 Northern Kentucky Law Review, No. 4, 683-703 (2002).

“From Heller to Chicagoland: Will Reconstruction Come to the Windy City?” 3 Northeastern University Law Journal, No. 1, 105 (2011).

“Guns, Criminality and Federalism: Supreme Court Curbs Congressional Power; Reins in Courts of Appeals,” 20 The Champion 12-15, 34 (June 1996).

“Heller, the Second Amendment, and Reconstruction: Protecting All Freedmen or Only Militiamen?” 50 Santa Clara Law Review 1073 (2010).

“The Jurisprudence of the Second and Fourteenth Amendments,” 4 George Mason University Law Review 1-69 (Spring 1981).

“Military Enforcement of the Drug Laws,” in K. and E. Zeese, 6 Drug Law 44-64 (Clark Boardman Callahan, 1993).

“Military Enforcement of Drug Laws Under the Posse Comitatus Act,” 1 Drug Law Report 121-129 (Sept./Oct. 1984).

Miller versus Texas: Police Violence, Race Relations, Capital Punishment, and Gun-toting,” 9 Journal of Law and Policy (Brooklyn Law School), No. 3, 737-66 (2001) (with Cynthia Leonardatos & David Kopel).

“Nazi Firearms Law and the Disarming of the German Jews,” 17 Arizona Journal of International and Comparative Law, No. 3, 483-532 (2000). Condensed version: Ch. 9 of Aaron Zelman & Richard W. Stevens, Death by “Gun Control”: The Human Cost of Victim Disarmament (Hartford, WI: Mazel Freedom Press, 2002), 75-111.

“Nazism, the Second Amendment, and the NRA: A Reply to Professor Harcourt,” 11 Texas Review of Law & Politics 113 (2006).

“No Right to ‘Bear Arms’? A Critical Analysis of United States v. Masciandaro,” 1 Wake Forest Law Review Online 116 (2011).

“NRA and Law Enforcement Opposition to the Brady Act: From Congress to the Courts” (with R. Gardiner), 10 St. John’s Journal of Legal Commentary 13-41 (Fall 1994).

“NRA v. BATFE: A Misinterpretation of History,” Jurist, Nov. 9. 2012.

“N.Y.’s Not So ‘SAFE’ Act,” 78 Albany L. Rev. 789 (2015)

“‘Only Law Enforcement Will Be Allowed to Have Guns’: Hurricane Katrina and the New Oleans Firearm Confiscations,” 18 George Mason University Civil Rights Law Journal 339 (Spring 208).

“Operation Sunrise: America’s OSS, Swiss Intelligence, and the German Surrender 1945,” in “Operation Sunrise.” Atti del convegno internazianale (Locarno, 2 maggio 2005), a cura di Marino Viganò – Dominic M Pedrazzini (2006), 103-30.

“The Original Understanding of the Second Amendment,” in The Bill of Rights: Original Meaning and Current Understanding, ed. E. Hickok (Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1991), 117-129. Cited as authority in State v. Hirsch, 177 Ore. App. 441, 446, 34 P.3d 1209, 1211 (2001).

“Personal Security, Personal Liberty, and ‘the Constitutional Right to Bear Arms’: Visions of the Framers of the Fourteenth Amendment,” 5 Seton Hall Constitutional Law Journal 341-434 (Spring 1995). Abridgement printed in 7 Journal on Firearms and Public Policy 135-214 (Fall 1995). Cited as authority in Peruta v. County of San Diego, 2014 WL 555862, *13 (9th Cir. 2014); Ezell v. City of Chicago, – F.3d – 561 F.3d 684, 702 n.11) (7th Cir. 2011).

“Rationing Firearms Purchases and the Right to Keep Arms: Reflections on the Bills of Rights of Virginia, West Virginia, and the United States,” 96 West Virginia Law Review, No. 1, 1-83 (Fall 1993). Cited as authority in In re Dailey, 195 W. Va. 330, 342, 465 S.E.2d 601, 613 (1995).

“Reality Check: The ‘Assault Weapon’ Fantasy & Second Amendment Jurisprudence,” 14 Georgetown Journal of Law & Public Policy 47 (2016).

“Redefining a ‘Crime’ as a Sentencing Factor to Circumvent the Right to Jury Trial: Harris v. United States,” Cato Supreme Court Review, 2001-2002 (Washington, D.C.: Cato Institute, 2002), 187-225.

“Restoring the Tenth Amendment: Printz v. United States,” in Commentaries on Law & Public Policy, Robert W. McGee ed., South Orange, N.J.: Dumont Institute for Public Policy Research, 1998.

“A Revolution in Second Amendment Law,” Delaware Lawyer 12-16 (Winter 2011/2012) (with Dan Peterson). Cited as authority in Doe v. Wilmington Housing Authority, 88 A.3d 654, 663 n.32-34 (Del. 2014).

“A Revolution in Second Amendment Law,” Delaware Lawyer 12-16 (Winter 2011/2012).

“The Right of the People or the Power of the State: Bearing Arms, Arming Militias, and the Second Amendment,” 26 Valparaiso University Law Review 131-207 (Fall 1991). Abridgement printed in 6 Journal on Firearms and Public Policy 69-163 (Fall 1994). Cited as authority in United States v. Emerson, 270 F.3d 203, 220 n.12 (5th Cir. 2001).

“Право народа на хранение и ношение оружия: вторая поправка билля о правах сша [The Right of the People to Keep and Bear Arms: the Second Amendment in the U.S. Bill of Rights],” Ukrainian Law Journal “Law of the USA” Issue 2 (2013), 240-50.

“The Right of Workers to Assemble and to Bear Arms: Presser v. Illinois, One of the Last Holdouts Against Application of the Bill of Rights to the States,” 76 University of Detroit Mercy Law Review 943-89 (Summer 1999).

“The Right to Bear Arms in Texas,” 41 Baylor Law Review 629-88 (1989).

“The Right to Bear Arms in the First State Bills of Rights: Pennsylvania, North Carolina, Vermont, and Massachusetts,” 10 Vermont Law Review 255-320 (1985).

“The Right to Bear Arms in the Virginia Constitution and the Second Amendment: Historical Development and Precedent in Virginia and the Fourth Circuit,” 8 Liberty University Law Review 619-47 (Summer 2014).

“The Right to Keep and Bear Arms Under the Second and Fourteenth Amendments,” 5 Journal on Firearms and Public Policy 7-28 (Fall 1993).

“‘Sau Nazi!’ What the Swiss Really Thought of Hitler,” Swiss American Historical Society Review Vol. 37, No. 1, 3-21 (February 2001).

“The Second Amendment as a Phenomenon of Classical Political Philosophy,” Firearms and Violence: Issues of Regulation, ed. Don B. Kates (Cambridge, Mass.: Ballinger Pub. Co., 1984); reprinted in The Militia in 20th Century America, ed. M. Norval (Falls Church, Va. 1985), 41-65.

“The Second Amendment in the Supreme Court: Where It’s Been and Where It’s Going,” 29 Hamline Law Review, No. 3, 449-49 (Summer 2006).

“Second Amendment Symposium - Panelist,” 10 Seton Hall Constitutional Law Journal No. 3 815-20 (Summer 2000).

“Second-Class Citizenship and the Second Amendment in the District of Columbia,” 5 George Mason University Civil Rights Law Journal, Nos. 1 & 2, 105-178 (1995). Cited as authority in Kasler v. Lockyer, 23 Cal.4th 472, 506, 2 P.3d 581 (2000) (Brown, J., concurring).

“The Spirit of Resistance: The Swiss ‘Wochenshau’ and ‘Armeefilmdienst,’” in Switzerland Under Siege, 1939-1945: A Neutral Nation’s Struggle for Survival, Leo Schelbert ed., (Rockport, ME: Picton Press, 2000).

“St. George Tucker: The American Blackstone,” 32 Virginia Bar News 45-50 (Feb. 1984).

“St. George Tucker’s Second Amendment: Deconstructing ‘The True Palladium of Liberty,’” 3 Tennessee Journal of Law and Policy, No. 2, 120-55 (Spring 2007).

“Suing the Firearms Industry: A Case for Federal Reform?” 7 Chapman Law Review 11-38 (Spring 2004).

“The Swiss and the Nazis,” 43 Swiss American Historical Review, No. 1, 4-30 (Feb. 2007).

“The Swiss Confederation in the Eyes of America’s Founders,” 48 Swiss American Historical Review No. 3, 32-69 (Nov. 2012).

“The Swiss Influence on the American Constitution,” in Halbrook, Die Schweiz im Visier (Zurich: Max Geilinger-Stiftung 2000), 30-39.

“Tench Coxe and the Right to Keep and Bear Arms, 1787-1823” (with David B. Kopel), 7 William & Mary Bill of Rights Journal Issue 2 347-99 (Feb. 1999).

“To Keep and Bear Their Private Arms: The Adoption of the Second Amendment, 1787-1791,” 31 Northern Kentucky Law Review 13-40 (1982), reprinted in CONG. REC., 99th Cong., 1st Sess., S9105-9111 (July 9, 1985).

“Tort Liability for the Manufacture, Sale, and Ownership of Handguns?” 6 Hamline University Law Review 351-382 (1983).

“Victims and Arms in Classical Legal Philosophy,” To Be a Victim: Encounters with Crime and Injustice, eds. Diane Sank and David I. Caplan (New York: Plenum Publishers 1991), 359-370.

“What the Framers Intended: A Linguistic Analysis of the Right to ‘Bear Arms,’” 49 Law and Contemporary Problems 401-412 (1986). Cited as authority in United States v. Emerson, 270 F.3d 203, 220 n.12, 227 (5th Cir. 2001); State v. Hirsch, 338 Or. 622, 658, 114 P.3d 1104, 1124 (2005); United States v. Li, 2008 WL 4610318, *3 (E.D. Wis. 2008); State v. Jorgenson, 312 P.3d 960, 966 (Wash. 2103) (en banc).

“‘Why Can’t We Be Like France?’ How the Right to Bear Arms Got Left Out of the Declaration of Rights and How Gun Registration Was Decreed Just in Time for the Nazi Occupation,” XXXIX Fordham Urban Law Journal, No. 5, 1637-94 (Oct. 2012).

Short Articles

“Afraid to Trust the People With Arms,” 7 The Free Market No. 6, 2, 5 (June 1989); reprinted in The Economics of Liberty, ed. L. Rockwell (Ludwig von Mises Institute, 1990).

“An American’s View of How the Swiss Coped with the Crisis in the 1990s,” Wir Ziehen Bilanz: Zur Auseinandersetzung um die Haltung der Schweiz im Zweiten Weltkrieg (Stäfa: Th. Gut Verlag, Zürichsee Presse AG, 2005), 154-73. Also in La Suisse au pilori? Témoignages et bilan à la suite du Rapport Bergier (Edition Cabédita, Yens-sur-Morges 2006).

“An Armed Society,” American Guardian, Jan. 1998, 40-43, 57-58.

“Anatomy of a Lie,” America’s 1st Freedom, October 2001, 24-29, 52-53.

“Another Look at the Brady Law,” Washington Post, Oct. 8, 1994, A18.

“Armed and Free,” Soldier of Fortune, December 1994, 6.

“Armed School Guards Are Our Best Bet to Stop Future Newtowns,” Newsday (Long Island), Jan. 24, 2013.

“Armed to the Teeth, and Free,” Wall Street Journal Europe, June 3, 1999.

“‘Arming America’ or Disarming Reality?” 149 American Rifleman 69 (January 2001).

“The Arms of the People Should Be Taken Away,” 137 American Rifleman 26-29, 76-77 (March 1989).

“Attorney General Ashcroft & the Second Amendment,” NRA-ILA, (July 1, 2004).

BATF vs. Supreme Court,” 144 American Rifleman 4 (Apr. 1996).

“Bear Arms and Go to Jail,” Part A1 of We The People: Community Forums on the Constitution, American Bar Association Commission on Public Understanding About the Law (1987), 14 pp.

“Bearing Arms a Right, Not Rhetoric,” Savannah Morning News, Dec. 15, 2007.

“Bearing Arms is a Right,” San Antonio Express-News, April 16, 1991, 9-A.

“The Bush Administration and the Second Amendment,” ALEC Policy Forum, Vol.4, No.2, 42-45 (Summer/Fall 2002).

“Can the First Amendment Survive a Ban on Tobacco Advertising?” American Voices 409-15 (New York 1987).

“Chicago versus the Second Amendment,”Washington Examiner, Feb. 27, 2010.

“Citizens’ Rights Reloaded” (with U.S. Senator Kay Bailey Hutchinson), Washington Times, June 29, 2008.

“The Darker Side of Gun Control,” National Law Journal, May 24, 2004, 39.

“Das Nazi-Waffengesetz und die Entwaffnung der deutschen Juden,” Allgemeine Schweizerische Militärzeitschrift, Nr. 12, Dezember 2001, 8-11.

“Debating the Second Amendment Point: The Constitution protects each American’s right to own a firearm,” San Diego Union Tribune, May 19, 2002, G1, 6.

“Deconstructing the Second Amendment,” posted by, (Nov. 3, 2000).

“Der freie Bürger und sein Recht, eine Waffe zu tragen,” Schweizerzeit, 21. Februar 2003, 5.

“Die Fehler der Vereiningten Statten vermeiden,” Neue Zürcher Zeitung, March 4, 1997, 18.

“Die Schweiz – immer auf Seiten der Freiheit,” STAB-Preis 2002 für Stephen P. Halbrook und Angelo M. Codevilla (Stiftung für Abendländische Besinnung Zürich, 2002), 27-33.

“Die Schweiz im Visier,” Neue Zürcher Zeitung, April 23, 2003, S. 14.

“Die Schweiz ist ein Sonderfall,” Pro Libertate, Juli-August 2010, S. 5.

“Does the United States Need a National Database for Ballistic Fingerprints?” Insight Magazine, Vol. 18, Issue 41, Nov. 26, 2002.

“Don’t Confirm Holder,” Human Events, Jan. 28, 2009.

“Eine dringende Ergänzung zum Bergier-Bericht: Ein Interview mit dem Juristen und Buchautor Stephen P. Halbrook,” Schweizerzeit, 28.Mai 2010, 5-6.

“Eine kleine Gruppe spielt alles hoch,” Die Weltwoche, Nr. 51/52, 19 Dezember 2002, S. 9-10., Ausgabe 51/02.

Emerson’s Second Amendment,” Independent Institute, 2001.

“The Extreme Makeover of St. George Tucker,” America’s 1st Freedom 25 (Jan. 2007).

“Fear and Loathing Out West,” 12 The Environmental Forum 41-42 (Sept./Oct. 1995).

“Firearms: On Trial in Germany,” NRA Action, 3 (August 1992).

“The Founders and Firearms,” Washington Times, June 11, 2008.

“The Framers Didn’t Want a National Police Force,” National Law Journal, Jan. 17, 1994, 14.

“Girl Beats Guys: A Swiss Teen Rifle Festival; Das Zürcher Knabenschiessen,” Schiessen Schweiz, Nov. 25, 2004, 18-19. Also in Women’s Outlook, Feb. 2006, 57, 63.

“Gun Control is not Constitutional,” in Guns and Violence, Henny H. Kim ed. (San Diego: Greenhaven Press, 1999), 109-112.

“Gun Laws,” 2 Libertarian Forum, No. 20, 4-6 (Oct. 15, 1970).

“Gun Ownership Rights Violated in Messerschmidt v. Millender,” Jurist—Hotline, Dec. 16, 2011.

“Guns and Prohibition, in Al Capone’s Day and Now,” Wall Street Journal, April 11, 1989, A22.

“Guns and Rights,” USA Today, May 16, 1990, 11A.

“How the Nazis Used Gun Control,” National Review Online, Dec. 2, 2013.

“How the Swiss Defeated the Gun Ban,” America’s 1st Freedom, July 2011, 22-25.

“It’s a Wonderful Model” (interview), Current Concerns June 2013, 5-8.

“In the Shadow of William Tell,” Guns, September 1997, 20, 22.

“It Started in Kentucky . . . Our First Gun Law,” Gun Digest 52-55, ed. K. Warner (DBI Books 1986).

“Kontraproduktiv! Das Geplante Schweizer Waffenrecht Aus Der Sicht Eines Amerikaners,” Deutsches Waffen-Journal, May 1997, 772-73.

“Lessons from Nazi gun control,” San Francisco Chronicle, July 16, 2014.

“Letter from Prague,” Chronicles 33-35 (Jan. 1995).

“Martial Arts Injuries,” (with R.B. Birrer, M.D.), 16 American Journal of Sports Medicine 408-410 (1988).

“Martial Arts Weapons Injuries,” 24 Black Belt 70-74, 98-102 (June 1986).

“Massachusetts Target Censorship Violates the First Amendment,” The Message, Aug. 1999, 8.

“National Rifle Association,” 2 Violence in America: An Encyclopedia, ed. Ronald Cottesman (New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1999), 436-38.

“The Nazis’ Gun Ban Facilitated Kristallnact,” History News Network (GMU), Nov. 25, 2013.

NRA v. BATFE: A Misinterpretation of History,” Jurist—Hotline, Nov. 9, 2012.

“No Controlling Legal Authority,” America’s 1st Freedom, Nov./Dec. 2000, 14.

“The People Retain the Right to Arm Themselves,” National Law Journal, May 27, 1996, A14.

“Personal Liberty Guarantee,” Washington Times, May 21, 1995.

“‘Printz’ Will Have Effect on U.S. Gun Legislation,” National Law Journal, Aug. 18, 1997, A18.

“Product Liability Law,” 131 American Rifleman 34-35, 71 (May 1983).

“Registration: The Nazi Paradigm,” American Rifleman 52-55, 91 (June 2001). Portuguese-language version: “Repressão Nazista dos Donos de Armas.”

“Relief in Sight? H.R. 2640,” America’s 1st Freedom, Sept. 2007, 44, & American Rifleman, Sept. 2007, 16.

“Reports of the Death of the Second Amendment Have Been Greatly Exaggerated: The Emerson Decision,” Independent Institute, November 19, 2001.

“Restoring the Second and Tenth Amendments,” LEAA Advocate, Summer-Fall 1997, 70-72.

“Rewriting the Second Amendment,” American Rifleman, October 2001, 48-49, 88-89.

“The Right to Bear Arms Isn’t Just for Militias,” National Law Journal A22 (Oct. 9, 1995).

“The Right of the People to Keep and Bear Arms,” The Message (Northborough, MA), July 1999, 5-6.

“The Right to Bear Arms,” 78 SAR Magazine (Sons of the American Revolution) 14-15 (Summer 1983).

“Right to Bear Arms,” 3 Violence in America: An Encyclopedia, ed. Ronald Cottesman (New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1999), 48-52.

“2nd Amendment: A Right to Own Arms?” USA Today, Nov. 20, 1991, 11A.

“Second Amendment: Post-Sniper Policy,” National Law Journal, Nov. 11, 2002, A17.

“The Second Amendment Stands,” USA Today, January 16, 1991, 8A.

“Securing Civil Rights,” America’s First Freedom, Oct. 2010, 46-50.

“Semiautomatic Article Draws BATF Response,” 136 American Rifleman 34-35 (Dec. 1988).

“Should All Gun Sales Be Registered in a National Database?” 23 CQResearcher, No. 10, 249 (March 8, 2013).

“Supreme Court Sides with Gun Owners,” American Rifleman 46-48, 90-91 (August 1992).

“Swiss Mess: Homeland defense, the wrong way” (with Dave Kopel & Carlo Stagnaro), National Review Online (October 30, 2001).

“Swiss Schuetzenfest,” American Rifleman, 46-47, 74-75 (May 1993).

“Switzerland’s Feldschiessen,” Gun Digest 20-26 (1996/50th Annual Edition).

“Switzerland, Gun Laws,” Guns in American Society: An Encyclopedia of History, Politics, Culture, and the Law, Gregg Lee Carter, ed. (Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO, 2002), 569-72.

“Switzerland and Its Armed Citizenry,” Chronicles 38-40 (Jan. 1998).

“Terror Law Trap for Gun Owners?” Washington Times, Mar. 14, 1996, A19.

“To Bear Arms for Self-Defense,” 132 American Rifleman 28-29, 67-68 (Nov. 1984).

“To Keep and Bear Arms,” The Republic (Columbus, IN), May 19, 1995.

“To Trust the People with Arms,” New Federalist Papers, No. 117 and 118, Public Research Syndicated (published in affiliated newspapers Aug. 1985).

“Tragödien gibt es überall,” Südkurier, Feb. 28, 2011.

“The War Against Semi-Automatics,” 136 American Rifleman 40-41, 80 (June 1988).

“Were the Founding Fathers in Favor of Gun Ownership?” Washington Times, Nov. 5, 2000, B5. Spanish-language version, “¿Estaban los Padres Fundadores a Favor de la Tenencia de Armas?”

“What Made the Nazi Holocaust Possible?” Washington Times, Nov. 7, 2013. Reprinted in America’s 1st Freedom, Feb. 2014, 72.

“Where Kids and Guns Do Mix,” Wall Street Journal, June 10, 1999, A26. Longer version. Spanish-language version: “Donde los Niños las Armas se Entremezclan.”

“Why Switzerland?” Current Concerns, April 2000, 3-4.

“The World’s Largest Rifle Shooting Match: Switzerland 1995,” The 1996 Precision Shooting Annual (Manchester, CT: Precision Shooting, Inc., 1996).