Before the U.S. Supreme Court in Castillo v. U.S. (2000)

“Stephen Halbrook is an attorney with extensive knowledge of the historical underpinnings of the Second Amendment and practical knowledge of litigating in this rapidly evolving area of law. His writings include topics as diverse as Gun Control in the Third Reich and The Founders’ Second Amendment, and he was heavily involved in Heller and McDonald.”

– U.S. District Judge Michael J. Reagan
Shepard v. Madigan, 2014 WL 4825592, *7 (S.D. Ill. 2014)

Supreme Court Practice

Practice Areas

Gun Control Act/National Firearms Act

  • Firearm technical classifications
  • ATF regulatory compliance
  • FFL warning conferences, license denials,
    and revocations
  • Forfeitures
  • Legal disabilities and restoration of civil rights
  • Criminal defense

State and Local Laws

  • “Assault weapon” restrictions
  • Legal status of firearms
  • Challenging restrictions

Civil and Criminal Cases Litigated >>

Books

Congressional Testimony

Scholarly Articles

Op-Eds & Short Articles

“Will the Second Amendment Survive Coronavirus?” National Review, Mar. 30, 2020, and Independent Institute, Mar. 31, 2020.

“What Makes a Gun a Gun?” America’s 1st Freedom, Mar. 23, 2020.

“We Must Remember Our History of Freedom,” America’s 1st Freedom, Mar. 8, 2020.

“Second Amendment Sanctuaries Started in 1774,” American Thinker, Dec. 22, 2019.

“Recalling the Tragic History of Gun Control,” The American Spectator, Sept. 4, 2019.

“Gun Control: The Kristallnacht Version Of ‘Common-Sense Safety,” Investor’s Business Daily, Nov. 15, 2018.

Some of the world’s most powerful banks push policies circumventing Constitution and federal laws, Los Angles Times, Sept. 13, 2018.

The Second Amendment had nothing to do with slavery, Fox News, June 22, 2018.

Time for a History Lesson About Gun Control, TownHall, June 22, 2018.

Justice Stevens’s Second Amendment Pipe Dream, National Review Online, April 18, 2018.

View More Op-Eds and Short Articles >>

TV Appearances

Radio Interviews

Instagram Updates

"The great object is, that every man be armed. . . "The great object is, that every man be armed. . . . Every one who is able may have a gun." - Patrick Henry (June 14, 1788 at the Virginia Ratifying Convention). To read more on this debate, see chapter 10 of The Founders' Second Amendment: Origins of the Right to Bear Arms.

Patrick Henry was born on this date in 1736.
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#patrickhenry #foundingfathers #patriot #donttreadonme #revolutionarywar #colonial #famousamericans #libertyordeath #americanhistory #ushistory #onthisday #onthisdate #freedom #greatorator #colonialhistory #greatmeninhistory #1788 #1736 #givemelibertyorgivemedeath #thefounderssecondamendment #armedpopulace #disarmedpopulace #2ahistory #greatquotes #greatamericanspeeches #virginiaconvention #rtkba #rtba #thateverymanbearmed #virginiaratifyingconvention

"The great object is, that every man be armed. . . . Every one who is able may have a gun." - Patrick Henry (June 14, 1788 at the Virginia Ratifying Convention). To read more on this debate, see chapter 10 of The Founders' Second Amendment: Origins of the Right to Bear Arms.

Patrick Henry was born on this date in 1736.
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#patrickhenry #foundingfathers #patriot #donttreadonme #revolutionarywar #colonial #famousamericans #libertyordeath #americanhistory #ushistory #onthisday #onthisdate #freedom #greatorator #colonialhistory #greatmeninhistory #1788 #1736 #givemelibertyorgivemedeath #thefounderssecondamendment #armedpopulace #disarmedpopulace #2ahistory #greatquotes #greatamericanspeeches #virginiaconvention #rtkba #rtba #thateverymanbearmed #virginiaratifyingconvention
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"In a December 1944 memo to Anthony Eden, a suprem "In a December 1944 memo to Anthony Eden, a supremely circumspect Winston Churchill wrote: 'Of all the neutrals Switzerland has the greatest right to distinction. . . . She has been a democratic State, standing for freedom in self-defense among her mountains, and in thought, in spite of race, largely on our side.' " "Given her geographical location at the heart of central Europe, as well as her multilinguistic composition, Switzerland's neutrality had been codified in European councils as early as 1515.  Once considered the foremost warriors of Europe (and drawn upon for centuries afterward as mercenaries) the Swiss received ratification by the international Treaty of Vienna after the Napoleonic Wars as comprising an independent confederation that should take no part in future European wars. . . . [H]er concept of armed neutrality was put to the ultimate test in the 1940s, when she found herself surrounded by Axis forces." From The Swiss and the Nazis: How the Alpine Republic Survived in the Shadow of the Third Reich, p. 3.

Photo: "Winston Churchill inspects the new Lee-Enfield No. 4 rifle with spike bayonet during a visit to 53rd Division in Kent, 20 November 1942."
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#wwii #ww2 #naziinvasion #theswissandthenazis #europeanhistory #WWIIhistory #Switzerlandhistory #swisswwiihistory #antinazi #nazi #armedswiss #swissresistance #nazigermany #resistance #swissarmywwii #swissarmy #armedneutrality #swissarmedneutrality #winstonchurchill #churchill #sirwinstonchurchill #britishhistory #ukhistory #napoleonicwars #treatyofvienna #anthonyeden #democraticstate #swissmercenaries #LeeEnfield #LeeEnfieldrifle

"In a December 1944 memo to Anthony Eden, a supremely circumspect Winston Churchill wrote: 'Of all the neutrals Switzerland has the greatest right to distinction. . . . She has been a democratic State, standing for freedom in self-defense among her mountains, and in thought, in spite of race, largely on our side.' " "Given her geographical location at the heart of central Europe, as well as her multilinguistic composition, Switzerland's neutrality had been codified in European councils as early as 1515.  Once considered the foremost warriors of Europe (and drawn upon for centuries afterward as mercenaries) the Swiss received ratification by the international Treaty of Vienna after the Napoleonic Wars as comprising an independent confederation that should take no part in future European wars. . . . [H]er concept of armed neutrality was put to the ultimate test in the 1940s, when she found herself surrounded by Axis forces." From The Swiss and the Nazis: How the Alpine Republic Survived in the Shadow of the Third Reich, p. 3.

Photo: "Winston Churchill inspects the new Lee-Enfield No. 4 rifle with spike bayonet during a visit to 53rd Division in Kent, 20 November 1942."
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#wwii #ww2 #naziinvasion #theswissandthenazis #europeanhistory #WWIIhistory #Switzerlandhistory #swisswwiihistory #antinazi #nazi #armedswiss #swissresistance #nazigermany #resistance #swissarmywwii #swissarmy #armedneutrality #swissarmedneutrality #winstonchurchill #churchill #sirwinstonchurchill #britishhistory #ukhistory #napoleonicwars #treatyofvienna #anthonyeden #democraticstate #swissmercenaries #LeeEnfield #LeeEnfieldrifle
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"Sophisms of a Barbarous and professed Tyranny. . "Sophisms of a Barbarous and professed Tyranny. . . . To unarm his people of weapons, money, and all means whereby they resist his power.” - Sir Walter Raleigh (1554-1618) from The Works of Sir Walter Raleigh.
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#walterraleigh #sirwalterraleigh #walterralegh #sirwalterralegh #sirwalterraleighquotes #theworksofsirwalterraleigh #englishgentleman #Englishauthor #englishsoldier #englishpolitican #englishcourtier #englishspy #englishexporer  #newworldexplorer 
#freedom #naturalfreedom #selfdefense #tyranny #downwithtyrants #naturallaw #rtkba #rkba #righttobeararms #beararms #2ahistory #armedpopulace #armedcitizen #humanright #resisttyranny #firearms

"Sophisms of a Barbarous and professed Tyranny. . . . To unarm his people of weapons, money, and all means whereby they resist his power.” - Sir Walter Raleigh (1554-1618) from The Works of Sir Walter Raleigh.
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#walterraleigh #sirwalterraleigh #walterralegh #sirwalterralegh #sirwalterraleighquotes #theworksofsirwalterraleigh #englishgentleman #Englishauthor #englishsoldier #englishpolitican #englishcourtier #englishspy #englishexporer #newworldexplorer 
#freedom #naturalfreedom #selfdefense #tyranny #downwithtyrants #naturallaw #rtkba #rkba #righttobeararms #beararms #2ahistory #armedpopulace #armedcitizen #humanright #resisttyranny #firearms
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"While firearms ownership, even by peaceable citiz "While firearms ownership, even by peaceable citizens, is controversial today, it was far more controversial during Reconstruction. Trusting ex-slaves to own firearms was, by any definition, the cutting edge in true belief in civil rights.  It remains to be seen whether contemporary society will accommodate the same rights of the freedman sought to be guaranteed by the Framers of the Fourteenth Amendment." Securing Civil Rights: Freedmen, the Fourteenth Amendment, and the Right to Bear Arms, p. 174.
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#racism #securingcivilrights #billofrights #righttobeararms #rtkba #2a #2ndamendment #14thamendment #armedblacks #armedblackman #blackrights #blackrightsmatter #civilwarreconstruction #slavecodes #blackcodes #reconstructioncongress #freedmen #racialtension #civilrights #14amendment #blackgunrights #gunrights #constitutionalright #selfdefense #armed #blackmanwithagun #uscongress #freedman #exslave #exslaves

"While firearms ownership, even by peaceable citizens, is controversial today, it was far more controversial during Reconstruction. Trusting ex-slaves to own firearms was, by any definition, the cutting edge in true belief in civil rights.  It remains to be seen whether contemporary society will accommodate the same rights of the freedman sought to be guaranteed by the Framers of the Fourteenth Amendment." Securing Civil Rights: Freedmen, the Fourteenth Amendment, and the Right to Bear Arms, p. 174.
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#racism #securingcivilrights #billofrights #righttobeararms #rtkba #2a #2ndamendment #14thamendment #armedblacks #armedblackman #blackrights #blackrightsmatter #civilwarreconstruction #slavecodes #blackcodes #reconstructioncongress #freedmen #racialtension #civilrights #14amendment #blackgunrights #gunrights #constitutionalright #selfdefense #armed #blackmanwithagun #uscongress #freedman #exslave #exslaves
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"When we see a man with a musket to shoulder, or c "When we see a man with a musket to shoulder, or carbine slung on back, or pistol belted to his side, or such like, he is bearing arms in the constitutional sense.” State v. Bias, 37 La. Ann. 259, 260 (1885).
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#musket #muskets #carbine #carbines #pistol #pistols #beararms #bearingarms #righttocarry #2ndamendmentcases #2acases #2ndamendmentsupporter #2a #2ndmendment #rtkba #righttobeararms #rtba #righttobeararmsshallnotbeinfringed #gunowners #gunowner #firearms #firearmslaws #constitutionalright #donotinfringe #2arights #2ndamendmentrights #lawabidinggunowner #statevbias #louisianacourtcase #carryagun

"When we see a man with a musket to shoulder, or carbine slung on back, or pistol belted to his side, or such like, he is bearing arms in the constitutional sense.” State v. Bias, 37 La. Ann. 259, 260 (1885).
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#musket #muskets #carbine #carbines #pistol #pistols #beararms #bearingarms #righttocarry #2ndamendmentcases #2acases #2ndamendmentsupporter #2a #2ndmendment #rtkba #righttobeararms #rtba #righttobeararmsshallnotbeinfringed #gunowners #gunowner #firearms #firearmslaws #constitutionalright #donotinfringe #2arights #2ndamendmentrights #lawabidinggunowner #statevbias #louisianacourtcase #carryagun
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"Prior to 1989, the term ‘assault weapon’ did "Prior to 1989, the term ‘assault weapon’ did not exist in the lexicon of firearms. It is a political term, developed by anti-gun publicists to expand the category of ‘assault rifles’ so as to allow an attack on as many additional firearms as possible on the basis of undefined ‘evil’ appearance.” - From Justice Thomas's dissent in Stenberg v. Carhart, 530 U.S. 914, 1001 n.16 (2000) (citation omitted).
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#assaultweapon #firearmslexicon #antigun #antigunextremists #assaultrifle #assaultrifles #scaryblackguns #supremecourt #ussupremecourt #righttocarry #2ndamendmentcases #2acases #2ndamendmentsupporter #2a #2ndmendment #rtkba #righttobeararms #gunrestrictions #gunowners #gunowner #firearms #firearmslaws #constitutionalright #SCOTUS #donotinfringe #2arights #2ndamendmentrights #lawabidinggunowner #justicethomas #StenbergvCarhart

"Prior to 1989, the term ‘assault weapon’ did not exist in the lexicon of firearms. It is a political term, developed by anti-gun publicists to expand the category of ‘assault rifles’ so as to allow an attack on as many additional firearms as possible on the basis of undefined ‘evil’ appearance.” - From Justice Thomas's dissent in Stenberg v. Carhart, 530 U.S. 914, 1001 n.16 (2000) (citation omitted).
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#assaultweapon #firearmslexicon #antigun #antigunextremists #assaultrifle #assaultrifles #scaryblackguns #supremecourt #ussupremecourt #righttocarry #2ndamendmentcases #2acases #2ndamendmentsupporter #2a #2ndmendment #rtkba #righttobeararms #gunrestrictions #gunowners #gunowner #firearms #firearmslaws #constitutionalright #SCOTUS #donotinfringe #2arights #2ndamendmentrights #lawabidinggunowner #justicethomas #StenbergvCarhart
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What would you do if you were Jewish, living in Be What would you do if you were Jewish, living in Berlin, Germany, and heard a radio announcement that if you were found in possession of a firearm you would be shot at once?  Some Jews hid their weapons in defiance.  Some sought to comply without being killed. Mrs. Sinzheimer heard this announcement on November 10, 1938, while outside there was shouting, glass being smashed, and shooting. She "knew that the fact that her husband (who was away in Paris on business) had a license for his handgun would mean nothing to the SA if they found it.  She called a friendly repairman to break open the secret drawer where the firearm and license were hidden.  She then placed the handgun and license in a box of cigars and carried it to the local police station on the Kurfustendamm.  She asked to see a sergeant whom she knew well and presented him with the box of cigars. When he discovered the gun license and handgun, he threw the gun in the garbage when no one was looking and exclaimed: 'Hurry home, Frau Sinzheimer, before you give me a heart attack!'" From Gun Control in the Third Reich: Disarming the Jews and the "Enemies of the State," p. 193.
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#kristallnacht #reichskristallnacht #nightofthebrokenglass #nazigermany #germanjews #holocausthistory #weaponspermit #wwiihistory #guncontrol #disarm #gunregistration #firearms #weaponsban #ww2history #illegalweapons #guncontrolinthethirdreich #kurfüstendamm #nazigerman #firearmsregistration #firearmsconfiscation #gunconfiscation #jewsww2 #jewsworldwar2 #weaponssearch #naziguncontrol #righttobeararms #thirdreich #nazi #wwIIhistory #Sturmabteilung

What would you do if you were Jewish, living in Berlin, Germany, and heard a radio announcement that if you were found in possession of a firearm you would be shot at once?  Some Jews hid their weapons in defiance.  Some sought to comply without being killed. Mrs. Sinzheimer heard this announcement on November 10, 1938, while outside there was shouting, glass being smashed, and shooting. She "knew that the fact that her husband (who was away in Paris on business) had a license for his handgun would mean nothing to the SA if they found it.  She called a friendly repairman to break open the secret drawer where the firearm and license were hidden.  She then placed the handgun and license in a box of cigars and carried it to the local police station on the Kurfustendamm.  She asked to see a sergeant whom she knew well and presented him with the box of cigars. When he discovered the gun license and handgun, he threw the gun in the garbage when no one was looking and exclaimed: 'Hurry home, Frau Sinzheimer, before you give me a heart attack!'" From Gun Control in the Third Reich: Disarming the Jews and the "Enemies of the State," p. 193.
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#kristallnacht #reichskristallnacht #nightofthebrokenglass #nazigermany #germanjews #holocausthistory #weaponspermit #wwiihistory #guncontrol #disarm #gunregistration #firearms #weaponsban #ww2history #illegalweapons #guncontrolinthethirdreich #kurfüstendamm #nazigerman #firearmsregistration #firearmsconfiscation #gunconfiscation #jewsww2 #jewsworldwar2 #weaponssearch #naziguncontrol #righttobeararms #thirdreich #nazi #wwIIhistory #Sturmabteilung
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What is one important thing you can do to support What is one important thing you can do to support the 2nd Amendment?  Get as many youngsters as you can involved in target shooting and hunting.  Besides teaching them wholesome skills, you're instilling good values in future voters.

Photo: "Ingrid showing Candice how to shoot her Ruger 10/22"; source: https://www.flickr.com/photos/simonov/15807561978
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#2aadvocate #2asupporter #2a #secondamendment #constitutionalright #maintainfreedom #therightofthepeople #shallnotbeinfringed #2ndamendment #rtkba #rtba #righttokeepandbeararms #righttobeararms #targetshooting #futurevoters #hunting #hunt #huntingtradition #righttohunt #marksmanshiptraining #firearmstraining #riflepractice #targetpractice #gunsafety #kidsandguns #shootinglessons #kidssports #kidsshootingguns #learntoshoot #ruger1022

What is one important thing you can do to support the 2nd Amendment?  Get as many youngsters as you can involved in target shooting and hunting.  Besides teaching them wholesome skills, you're instilling good values in future voters.

Photo: "Ingrid showing Candice how to shoot her Ruger 10/22"; source: https://www.flickr.com/photos/simonov/15807561978
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#2aadvocate #2asupporter #2a #secondamendment #constitutionalright #maintainfreedom #therightofthepeople #shallnotbeinfringed #2ndamendment #rtkba #rtba #righttokeepandbeararms #righttobeararms #targetshooting #futurevoters #hunting #hunt #huntingtradition #righttohunt #marksmanshiptraining #firearmstraining #riflepractice #targetpractice #gunsafety #kidsandguns #shootinglessons #kidssports #kidsshootingguns #learntoshoot #ruger1022
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Marathon & Triathlon Photos

Reykjavík Half-Marathon, 2019
Reykjavík, Iceland

Jungfrau Marathon, 2004
Jungfrau, Switzerland

Marine Corps Marathon
Washington, D.C.

Alcatraz Triathlon, 2001
San Francisco, California

Berlin Marathon, 2019
Berlin, Germany

Berlin Marathon, 2017
Berlin, Germany