Before the U.S. Supreme Court in Castillo v. U.S. (2000)

“Stephen Halbrook is an attorney with extensive knowledge of the historical underpinnings of the Second Amendment and practical knowledge of litigating in this rapidly evolving area of law. His writings include topics as diverse as Gun Control in the Third Reich and The Founders’ Second Amendment, and he was heavily involved in Heller and McDonald.”

– U.S. District Judge Michael J. Reagan
Shepard v. Madigan, 2014 WL 4825592, *7 (S.D. Ill. 2014)

Supreme Court Practice

Practice Areas

Gun Control Act/National Firearms Act

  • Firearm technical classifications
  • ATF regulatory compliance
  • FFL warning conferences, license denials,
    and revocations
  • Forfeitures
  • Legal disabilities and restoration of civil rights
  • Criminal defense

State and Local Laws

  • “Assault weapon” restrictions
  • Legal status of firearms
  • Challenging restrictions

Civil and Criminal Cases Litigated >>

Books

Congressional Testimony

Scholarly Articles

Op-Eds & Short Articles

“How Does New York City Get Away with This?” America’s 1st Freedom, July 26, 2020.

“Will the Second Amendment Survive Coronavirus?” National Review, Mar. 30, 2020, and Independent Institute, Mar. 31, 2020.

“What Makes a Gun a Gun?” America’s 1st Freedom, Mar. 23, 2020.

“We Must Remember Our History of Freedom,” America’s 1st Freedom, Mar. 8, 2020.

“Second Amendment Sanctuaries Started in 1774,” American Thinker, Dec. 22, 2019.

“Recalling the Tragic History of Gun Control,” The American Spectator, Sept. 4, 2019.

“Gun Control: The Kristallnacht Version Of ‘Common-Sense Safety,” Investor’s Business Daily, Nov. 15, 2018.

Some of the world’s most powerful banks push policies circumventing Constitution and federal laws, Los Angles Times, Sept. 13, 2018.

The Second Amendment had nothing to do with slavery, Fox News, June 22, 2018.

Time for a History Lesson About Gun Control, TownHall, June 22, 2018.

View More Op-Eds and Short Articles >>

TV Appearances

Radio Interviews

Instagram Updates

Flashback Friday:  Marine Corp Marathon (2013). B Flashback Friday:  Marine Corp Marathon (2013). Back when people got together and ran races.
.
.
.
#marinecorps #marinecorpsmarathon #lawyersthatrun #marathon #marathonrunning #marathonrunner #marathoner #seniorrunners #running #runnersofinstagram #runnerslife #runnershigh #runningcommunity #runforfun #racefun #finishtherace #runner #runnersworld #runforfun #beforesocialdistancing #precovidworld #flashbackfriday #fridayflashback #missingraces #missingraceseason #runforlife

Flashback Friday:  Marine Corp Marathon (2013). Back when people got together and ran races.
.
.
.
#marinecorps #marinecorpsmarathon #lawyersthatrun #marathon #marathonrunning #marathonrunner #marathoner #seniorrunners #running #runnersofinstagram #runnerslife #runnershigh #runningcommunity #runforfun #racefun #finishtherace #runner #runnersworld #runforfun #beforesocialdistancing #precovidworld #flashbackfriday #fridayflashback #missingraces #missingraceseason #runforlife
...

Was Einstein really a pacifist?  The Nazis didn't Was Einstein really a pacifist?  The Nazis didn't believe so - they were so sure that he was stockpiling firearms that they searched his home on March 20, 1933:  

"Charging that Professor Albert Einstein had a huge quantity of arms and ammunition stored in his secluded home in Caputh, the National Socialists sent Brown Shirt men and policemen to search it today, but the nearest thing to arms they found was a bread knife.

Professor Einstein's home, which for the present is empty, the professor being on his way back to Europe from the United States, was surrounded on all sides and one of the most perfect raids of recent German history was carried out.  The outcome was a disappointment to those who have always regarded Professor Einstein's pacifist utterances as a mere pose."

"Nazis Hunt Arms in Einstein Home," New York Times, Mar. 21, 1933, 10.  Quoted in Gun Control in the Third Reich, pgs. 58-59.

Photo:  Albert Einstein in Princeton, NJ, soon after he fled Germany.  Oct. 18, 1933.
.
.
.
#einstein #alberteinstein #physicist #scientist #famousmen #NationalSocialists #pacifist #breadknife #professoreinstein #naziraid 
#nazi #nazigermany #guncontrol #disarm #naziguncontrol #europeanhistory #wwIIhistory #ww2history #firearms #armsandammo guncontrolinthethirdreich #wwiihistory #ww2 #wwii #thirdreich #einsteinquote #einsteinquotes #freedomquote #freedomquotes #fightforfreedom

Was Einstein really a pacifist?  The Nazis didn't believe so - they were so sure that he was stockpiling firearms that they searched his home on March 20, 1933:  

"Charging that Professor Albert Einstein had a huge quantity of arms and ammunition stored in his secluded home in Caputh, the National Socialists sent Brown Shirt men and policemen to search it today, but the nearest thing to arms they found was a bread knife.

Professor Einstein's home, which for the present is empty, the professor being on his way back to Europe from the United States, was surrounded on all sides and one of the most perfect raids of recent German history was carried out.  The outcome was a disappointment to those who have always regarded Professor Einstein's pacifist utterances as a mere pose."

"Nazis Hunt Arms in Einstein Home," New York Times, Mar. 21, 1933, 10.  Quoted in Gun Control in the Third Reich, pgs. 58-59.

Photo:  Albert Einstein in Princeton, NJ, soon after he fled Germany.  Oct. 18, 1933.
.
.
.
#einstein #alberteinstein #physicist #scientist #famousmen #NationalSocialists #pacifist #breadknife #professoreinstein #naziraid 
#nazi #nazigermany #guncontrol #disarm #naziguncontrol #europeanhistory #wwIIhistory #ww2history #firearms #armsandammo guncontrolinthethirdreich #wwiihistory #ww2 #wwii #thirdreich #einsteinquote #einsteinquotes #freedomquote #freedomquotes #fightforfreedom
...

"As we encourage our fellow Americans to take part "As we encourage our fellow Americans to take part in learning more about firearms this month [August is National Shooting Sports Month], including safety and proper instruction, we also pledge to continue doing our part to ensure that our rights are never infringed upon. . . . I ask those Americans who currently participate in shooting sports to share this cherished tradition with others.  Together, we can proudly ensure that the next generation knows how to safely and responsibly enjoy their Second Amendment freedoms." - President Donald Trump.  

These excerpts are from the Presidential Message on National Shooting Sports Month, released by the White House on August 1, 2020.  To read the full message go to:  https://www.whitehouse.gov/briefings-statements/presidential-message-national-shooting-sports-month-2020/
.
.
.
#NationalShootingSportsMonth #nssf #shootingsportsmonth #2ahistory #americanfreedom #american tradition #americanhistory #keepandbeararms #2a #rtkba #rtba #2ndamendment #righttobeararms #righttokeepandbeararms #presidenttrump #presidenttrumpquotes #trumpquotes #presidentmessage #presidentdonaldtrump #2afreedom #shootingsports #gunsafety #learntoshoot #shootingtradition #gunsafety #donotinfringe #shallnotbeinfringed #firearm #firearms #shootingskill

"As we encourage our fellow Americans to take part in learning more about firearms this month [August is National Shooting Sports Month], including safety and proper instruction, we also pledge to continue doing our part to ensure that our rights are never infringed upon. . . . I ask those Americans who currently participate in shooting sports to share this cherished tradition with others.  Together, we can proudly ensure that the next generation knows how to safely and responsibly enjoy their Second Amendment freedoms." - President Donald Trump.  

These excerpts are from the Presidential Message on National Shooting Sports Month, released by the White House on August 1, 2020.  To read the full message go to:  https://www.whitehouse.gov/briefings-statements/presidential-message-national-shooting-sports-month-2020/
.
.
.
#NationalShootingSportsMonth #nssf #shootingsportsmonth #2ahistory #americanfreedom #american tradition #americanhistory #keepandbeararms #2a #rtkba #rtba #2ndamendment #righttobeararms #righttokeepandbeararms #presidenttrump #presidenttrumpquotes #trumpquotes #presidentmessage #presidentdonaldtrump #2afreedom #shootingsports #gunsafety #learntoshoot #shootingtradition #gunsafety #donotinfringe #shallnotbeinfringed #firearm #firearms #shootingskill
...

In the 1800s, archery became one of the first orga In the 1800s, archery became one of the first organized competitive sports in which women were allowed to participate equally.    It was considered a dignified and healthy sport that benefitted the mind and body.  Queen Victoria herself was an enthusiastic archer.  The bows used were lighter and smaller than war bows.  Skill and interest in archey continued and during the 1908 Olympics in London, many female archers competed in the National Round Archery event.

Image: Portrait of Her Majesty Queen Victoria [From Hansard's "Book of Archery"]
.
.
.
#englishhistory #britishhistory #englandhistory #archery #archer #victorianengland #womenarchery #womenarcher #womenarchers #competitivearchery #Toxophiles #Toxophile #traditionalarchery #bowandarrow #bowandarrows #queenvictoria #queenvictoriafacts #sportsforwomen #womenandarchery  #historyinart #longbow #archerylife  #thebookofarchery #georgehansard #1908Olympics #nationalroundarchery #queenvictoriaofengland #healthysports #equalopportunity #sportswomen

In the 1800s, archery became one of the first organized competitive sports in which women were allowed to participate equally.    It was considered a dignified and healthy sport that benefitted the mind and body.  Queen Victoria herself was an enthusiastic archer.  The bows used were lighter and smaller than war bows.  Skill and interest in archey continued and during the 1908 Olympics in London, many female archers competed in the National Round Archery event.

Image: Portrait of Her Majesty Queen Victoria [From Hansard's "Book of Archery"]
.
.
.
#englishhistory #britishhistory #englandhistory #archery #archer #victorianengland #womenarchery #womenarcher #womenarchers #competitivearchery #Toxophiles #Toxophile #traditionalarchery #bowandarrow #bowandarrows #queenvictoria #queenvictoriafacts #sportsforwomen #womenandarchery  #historyinart #longbow #archerylife  #thebookofarchery #georgehansard #1908Olympics #nationalroundarchery #queenvictoriaofengland #healthysports #equalopportunity #sportswomen
...

What were some types of firearms that the American What were some types of firearms that the Americans used to fight the British in their War for Independence?  One British officer conceded, " 'These fellows were generally good marksmen, and many of them used long guns made for Duck-Shooting.' This attested to the shooting skills of the colonists and indicated that private arms designed for hunting were in common use.  Other accounts indicate that a number of militiamen carried arms that were designed for hunting or were obsolete.  A man from Lynn bore a 'long fowling piece, without a bayonet, a horn of powder, a seal-skin pouch, filled with bullets and buckshot.' 'Here an old soldier carried a heavy Queens's arm . . . while by his side walked a stripling boy with a Spanish fussee not half its weight and calibre ... while not a few had old French pieces . . . .' "  From The Founders' Second Amendment: Origins of the Right to Bear Arms, p. 78.

Painting by Ed Vebell
.
.
.
#americanpatriots #thefounderssecondamendment #warforindependence #revolutionarywar #americanrevolution #2ahistory #militiamen #americanfreedom #musket #muskets #colonialhistory #colonialmilitia #keepandbeararms #militia #revolutionaryhistory #americanrebellion #thebritisharecoming #redcoats #huntingguns #fowlinggun #powderhorn #bullets #buckshot #queensarms #fussee #spanishfussee #frenchguns #2a #rtkba #rtba

What were some types of firearms that the Americans used to fight the British in their War for Independence?  One British officer conceded, " 'These fellows were generally good marksmen, and many of them used long guns made for Duck-Shooting.' This attested to the shooting skills of the colonists and indicated that private arms designed for hunting were in common use.  Other accounts indicate that a number of militiamen carried arms that were designed for hunting or were obsolete.  A man from Lynn bore a 'long fowling piece, without a bayonet, a horn of powder, a seal-skin pouch, filled with bullets and buckshot.' 'Here an old soldier carried a heavy Queens's arm . . . while by his side walked a stripling boy with a Spanish fussee not half its weight and calibre ... while not a few had old French pieces . . . .' "  From The Founders' Second Amendment: Origins of the Right to Bear Arms, p. 78.

Painting by Ed Vebell
.
.
.
#americanpatriots #thefounderssecondamendment #warforindependence #revolutionarywar #americanrevolution #2ahistory #militiamen #americanfreedom #musket #muskets #colonialhistory #colonialmilitia #keepandbeararms #militia #revolutionaryhistory #americanrebellion #thebritisharecoming #redcoats #huntingguns #fowlinggun #powderhorn #bullets #buckshot #queensarms #fussee #spanishfussee #frenchguns #2a #rtkba #rtba
...

In fascist Italy, "Prime Minister Benito Mussolini In fascist Italy, "Prime Minister Benito Mussolini told the Italian Senate in 1923 that he had restored order by eliminating subversives, noting: 'On the morrow of each conflict I gave the categorical order to confiscate the largest possible number of weapons of every sort and kind.  This confiscation, which continues with the utmost energy, has given satisfactory results.'"  Gun Control in the Third Reich: Disarming the Jews and the "Enemies of the State," p. 8.
.
.
.
#benitomussolini #mussolini #benitoamilcareandreamussolini #benitomussoliniduce #enemiesofthestate #facist #fascism #oppression #guncontrolinthethirdreich #dictator #gunconfiscation #righttobeararms #rtkba #gunowner #gunowners #armed #historybuff #tyranny #wwiihistory #guncontrol #disarm #firearms #weaponsban #ww2history #illegalweapons #firearmsconfiscation #wwIIhistory #wwiiitaly #nationalfascistparty #ww2italy

In fascist Italy, "Prime Minister Benito Mussolini told the Italian Senate in 1923 that he had restored order by eliminating subversives, noting: 'On the morrow of each conflict I gave the categorical order to confiscate the largest possible number of weapons of every sort and kind.  This confiscation, which continues with the utmost energy, has given satisfactory results.'"  Gun Control in the Third Reich: Disarming the Jews and the "Enemies of the State," p. 8.
.
.
.
#benitomussolini #mussolini #benitoamilcareandreamussolini #benitomussoliniduce #enemiesofthestate #facist #fascism #oppression #guncontrolinthethirdreich #dictator #gunconfiscation #righttobeararms #rtkba #gunowner #gunowners #armed #historybuff #tyranny #wwiihistory #guncontrol #disarm #firearms #weaponsban #ww2history #illegalweapons #firearmsconfiscation #wwIIhistory #wwiiitaly #nationalfascistparty #ww2italy
...

"Even in the best and most peacefully civilized co "Even in the best and most peacefully civilized countries many occasions arise when a woman versed in the knowledge and use of firearms may find that information and skill of great importance." - Annie Oakley.  Oakley was a strong proponent for self defense and she personally taught 15,000 women how to shoot.
.
.
.
#annieoakley #littlemisssureshot #littlemissy #phoebeannmosey #littlesureshot #12gauge #12gaugeshotgun #exhibitionshooter #shotgun #womenshistory #sharpshooter #oldwest #wildwest #oldwest #americanwest #firearm #firearms #womenoftheamericanwest #getoutside #outdoorswoman #selfdefense #learntoshoot #womensselfdefense #womenshooters #womenandguns #gunquotes #maintainfreedom #firearmstraining #shootinglessons #2a #rtkba

"Even in the best and most peacefully civilized countries many occasions arise when a woman versed in the knowledge and use of firearms may find that information and skill of great importance." - Annie Oakley.  Oakley was a strong proponent for self defense and she personally taught 15,000 women how to shoot.
.
.
.
#annieoakley #littlemisssureshot #littlemissy #phoebeannmosey #littlesureshot #12gauge #12gaugeshotgun #exhibitionshooter #shotgun #womenshistory #sharpshooter #oldwest #wildwest #oldwest #americanwest #firearm #firearms #womenoftheamericanwest #getoutside #outdoorswoman #selfdefense #learntoshoot #womensselfdefense #womenshooters #womenandguns #gunquotes #maintainfreedom #firearmstraining #shootinglessons #2a #rtkba
...

"Article 2 of the amendments to the Constitution o "Article 2 of the amendments to the Constitution of the United States gives the people the right to bear arms, and states that this right 'shall not be infringed.'  Any person, white or black, may be disarmed if convicted of making an improper and dangerous use of weapons; but no military or civil officer has the right or authority to disarm any class of people, thereby placing them at the mercy of others.  All men, without distinction of color, have the right to keep arms to defend their homes, families, or themselves." From a circular promulgated by the Freedmen's Bureau  Assistant Commissioner for Georgia, David Tillson, on December 22, 1865.  Quoted in Securing Civil Rights: Freedmen, the Fourteenth Amendment, and the Right to Bear Arms, p. 31.

#rtba #disarm #righttodefend #blackgunsmatter #shallnotbeinfringed
#blackhistory #civilrights #billofrights #14amendment #securingcivilrights #freedmen #blackgunrights #gunrights #selfdefense #2a #2amendment #rtkba #righttobeararms #constitutionalright #possessarms #selfdefense #armed #blackmanwithagun #1865 #americanrights #ushistory #americanhistory #blackhistory #defendyourfamily

"Article 2 of the amendments to the Constitution of the United States gives the people the right to bear arms, and states that this right 'shall not be infringed.'  Any person, white or black, may be disarmed if convicted of making an improper and dangerous use of weapons; but no military or civil officer has the right or authority to disarm any class of people, thereby placing them at the mercy of others.  All men, without distinction of color, have the right to keep arms to defend their homes, families, or themselves." From a circular promulgated by the Freedmen's Bureau Assistant Commissioner for Georgia, David Tillson, on December 22, 1865.  Quoted in Securing Civil Rights: Freedmen, the Fourteenth Amendment, and the Right to Bear Arms, p. 31.

#rtba #disarm #righttodefend #blackgunsmatter #shallnotbeinfringed
#blackhistory #civilrights #billofrights #14amendment #securingcivilrights #freedmen #blackgunrights #gunrights #selfdefense #2a #2amendment #rtkba #righttobeararms #constitutionalright #possessarms #selfdefense #armed #blackmanwithagun #1865 #americanrights #ushistory #americanhistory #blackhistory #defendyourfamily
...

Marathon & Triathlon Photos

Reykjavík Half-Marathon, 2019
Reykjavík, Iceland

Jungfrau Marathon, 2004
Jungfrau, Switzerland

Marine Corps Marathon
Washington, D.C.

Alcatraz Triathlon, 2001
San Francisco, California

Berlin Marathon, 2019
Berlin, Germany

Berlin Marathon, 2017
Berlin, Germany